EU - Passenger Cars & LDT

Status

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The current standards for new passenger vehicles and LDTs in the European Union are Euro 6 standards; these were phased in from September 2014. Real driving emissions (RDE) standards have been developed and are being implemented from 1 September 2017.

Euro 6

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Emissions limits and initial implementation

The Euro 6 standards were first implemented starting in September 2014; they were originally defined in EC regulations 715/2007 [1] and 692/2008 [2]. In addition, EU Regulation 459/2012 [7] introduced particle number limits and included revised nomenclature and clarifications on the introduction dates for the different stages of OBD requirements. The following table reports the Euro 6 emissions limits and their initial implementation dates. For definitions of the vehicle categories and some details on the regulations covering EU type approval, please refer to the entry EU - Vehicle Categories.

Table 1: Euro 6 Emissions Limits and Initial Implementation Dates [7]
Emissions Class M, N1 I Class N1 II Class N1 III, N2
SI CI SI CI SI CI
THC (mg/km) 100 - 130 - 160 -
NMHC (mg/km) 68 - 90 - 108  -
NOx (mg/km) 60 80 75 105 82 125
HC + NOx (mg/km) - 170 - 195 - 215
CO (mg/km) 1,000 500 1,810 630 2,270 740
PM (mg/km)  4.5 (1) 4.5 4.5 (1) 4.5 4.5 (1) 4.5
PN (#/km) 6.0·1011 (1)(2) 6.0·1011  6.0·1011 (1)(2) 6.0·1011  6.0·1011 (1)(2) 6.0·1011 
Implementation Dates
Type Approval 01/09/14 01/09/15
First Registration 01/09/15 01/09/16

Notes:
1. SI engine standard applies to direct injection only.
2. This standard was introduced with Regulation 459/2012 [7]. It applies only to DI engines and includes a derogation limit of 6.0·1012/km for three years provided that a type approval test method is implemented ensuring effective limitation of particle numbers under real driving conditions.

Development of the regulations and implementation stages

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Monitoring of fuel and/or electric energy consumption

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In-service conformity

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Small volume manufacturers

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Real Driving Emissions

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Introduction

There has been some concern that tests have consistently shown a marked difference between legislated emissions levels and those measured under real driving conditions. In particular, NOx emissions from light duty diesel engines tend to be higher under real driving conditions than when measured during the type approval process. In January 2011 the European Commission established a working group with the task of developing a new test procedure to address this issue. Two approaches to a new procedure were considered, one to use random test cycles for additional laboratory tests and one involving the use of portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) to measure emissions under real driving conditions on the road. Following initial assessments by the Joint Research Centre, the real driving conditions approach was selected and developed further [8]. In May 2015 the EU Commission's Technical Committee of Motor Vehicles (TCMV), voted to accept the new RDE (real driving emissions) test procedure. The RDE procedures were officially introduced with EU Commission Regulation 2016/427 [11] and further requirements were detailed in EU Commission Regulation 2016/646 [12]. The third package on RDE requirements, regulation 2017/1154 [16], is dated 7 June 2017; this was published as an amendment to Regulation 2017/1151 [14] and came into force on 27 July 2017. A corrigendum to regulation 2017/1154 was published in October 2017 [22] and an additional corrigendum was published in February 2018 [23]. Additional amendments to RDE requirements (4th package) are contained in regulation 2018/1832 [24] [28]. 

RDE requirements

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Ruling on NOx conformity factors

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Small volume manufacturers

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Test Procedures

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World Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP)

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ATCT test

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Evaporative emissions test

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Durability of emissions control devices

The requirements for the durability (Type 5) test are covered in Annex VII of regulation 2017/1151 [6] and a minor update is included in regulation 2018/1832 [28]. Regulation 2017/1151 generally refers to the methodology defined in UN/ECE Regulation 83 (section 5.3.6 and Annex 9) [5], with some exceptions (defined in  Annex VII of 2017/1151). The required durability of pollution control devices is 160,000 km [5], manufacturers have three options for demonstrating it:

1. A whole vehicle durability test. This can be carried out on a test track, on road or on a chassis dynamometer; details of the driving schedule are reported in Annex 9 of Regulation 83 [5]. As an alternative to the operating cycle for the whole vehicle durability test, the vehicle manufacturer may use the Standard Road Cycle (SRC) until the vehicle has covered a minimum of 160,000 km; this can be run on a test track or on a distance accumulation dynamometer. Type 1 (emissions) testing required as part of the procedure has to be carried out with the WLTP test cycles, as required by Annex XXI of regulation 2017/1151 [6].

2. A bench ageing durability test. Bench ageing is carried out with the Standard Bench Cycle (SBC) for PI vehicles, including hybrid vehicles which use a catalyst as the main emissions control device. For CI vehicles, including hybrid vehicles, bench ageing is conducted following the Standard Diesel Bench Cycle (SDBC). Type 1 (emissions) testing required as part of the procedure has to be carried out with the WLTP test cycles, as required by Annex XXI of regulation 2017/1151 [6].

3. The manufacturer may choose to apply assigned deterioration factors as shown in the following table (no assigned deterioration factors are available for CI engine vehicles).

Table 5: Assigned Deterioration Factors [6]
Engine Category CO THC NMHC NOx HC + NOx PM PN
Positive Ignition 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.6 - 1.0 1.0
Compression Ignition (1)              

Note: 1. No assigned deterioration factors for CI engine vehicles.

Low ambient temperature test

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Real Driving Emissions test

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Particle number measurement

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On-board diagnostics

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Euro 6 OBD

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Historical Data

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Pre-1997 Legislation (Euro 1)

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1997-2000 Legislation (Euro 2)

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2000 Legislation (Euro 3)

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Euro 4

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Euro 3/4 OBD

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Euro 5

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Euro 5 OBD

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EURO 6 OBD - Interim Thresholds

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NEDC

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References

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Last update: 19/06/2019